February 10, 2022 | Compiled by Deanna Barton, MA, ATR-BC & Zachary D. Van Den Berg, MA, ATR-P, LPC-Associate

Early Black History in Art Therapy


Boston, C., Doby-Copeland, C., & Short, G. (2001, November). Learning from our past: Honoring our culturally diverse art therapy pioneers. Paper presented at the 31st Annual Conference of the American Art Therapy Association, Albuquerque, NM. Retrieved from http://www.americanarttherapyassociation.org/conferenceproceedings/2001.pdf

Gipson, L. (2018). Envisioning Black women’s consciousness in art therapy. In S. Talwar (Ed.), Art therapy for social justice: Radical intersections (pp. 96–120). Routledge. Retrieved from https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315694184-5/envisioning-black-women-consciousness-art-therapy-leah-gipson

Multicultural Committee of the American Art Therapy Association. (2011). Wheels of Diversity in Art Therapy: Pioneers of color. [Documentary]. Retrieved from https://www.expressivemedia.org/wheels-of-diversity-aata/

Potash, J. S., Doby-Copeland, C., Stepney, S. A., Washington, B. N., Vance, L. D., Short, G. M., … ErMaat, M. B. (2015). Advancing multicultural and diversity competence in art therapy: American Art Therapy Association Multicultural Committee. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 32(3), 146–150. doi:10. 1080/07421656.2006.10129531

Stepney, S., & Doby-Copeland, C. (2011). Wheels of diversity in Art Therapy: Pioneers of Color Course Materials for Students of Art Therapy. Retrieved from https://arttherapy.org/upload/wheels.pdf

Architects of Color in Art Therapy

Doby-Copeland, C., & Boston, C. (2021). Commentary on “Wheels of Diversity in Art Therapy: Pioneers of Color”. Expressive Media, Inc. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/564266412

Short, G., Vance, L., & Fish, B. (2021). Commentary on “Two Art Therapy Pioneers of Color: Georgette Powell and Cliff Joseph”. Expressive Media, Inc. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/564266469

Stepney, S. A. (2019). Visionary Architects of Color in Art Therapy: Georgette Powell, Cliff Joseph, Lucille Venture, and Charles Anderson. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 36(3), 115-121. doi:10.1080/07421656.2019.1649545

Charles Anderson

Anderson, C. (1975). Drawing as a Diagnostic Tool for Performance Evaluation. Presented at the Central Neuropsychiatric Hospital Association: 49th Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from https://www.arttherapy.org/ARCHIVES/Historic%20Figures/Charles%20Anderson/Drawing%20as%20a%20Diagnostic%20Tool%20for%20Performance%20Evaluation%201975.pdf

Anderson, C. (2018). My journey in art therapy [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.arttherapy.org/upload/My%20Journey%20in%20Art%20Therapy-Charles%20Anderson.pdf

Anderson, C., & Nguyen, K. (2020). Professional Issues in the Context of Racism. Presented at the Kansas Art Therapy Association Conference 2020: Virtually Together. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1sxLstJwOT1QnFEaHuxYZNj5rGChBO857/view

Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site. (2012). Art exhibit featuring local artist Charles Anderson opens at Brown v. Board. Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/brvb/learn/news/2012.htm

Keane, C. (2018). Featured member: Charles Anderson, art therapy pioneer. Retrieved from www.arttherapy.org/charles-anderson-art-therapy-pioneer/

Cliff Joseph

Archives of American Art. (1972). Oral history interview with Cliff Joseph. Retrieved from http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/interviews/oral-history-interview-cliff-joseph-11487

Fine, E. H. (1982). The Afro-American Artist: A Search for Identity. Hacker Art Books, 206-207. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/afroamericanarti0000fine

Fish, B., Redmond, E., Yi, S., & Joseph, C. (2006). Conversations with Cliff Joseph: Artist, Activist, Art Therapist [Documentary]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQNetPS1Mos

Harris, J., & Joseph, C. (1973). Murals of the mind: Image of a psychiatric community. International Universities Press. Retrieved from https://www.worldcat.org/title/murals-of-the-mind-image-of-a-psychiatric-community/oclc/731582232?referer=di&ht=edition

Joseph, C. (Ed.). (1973). Art therapy and the third world [Monograph]. Panel discussion presented at the Fifth Annual Conference of the American Art Therapy Association. Retrieved from https://e2933b58-687a-4d6c-8a3b-9a93b1059dac.filesusr.com/ugd/158dac_81932f83b19c432ab67f115dcaac8457.pdf

Joseph, C. (1989). Art, politics, and the life force. Forward: Journal of Socialist Thought, 9(1), 39-28. Retrieved from https://unityarchiveproject.org/wp-content/uploads/Forward_Vol.9_No.1_Spring_Summer_1989_edit.pdf

Joseph, C. (2006) Creative alliance: The healing power of art therapy. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 23(1), 30-33. doi:10.1080/07421656. 2006.10129531

Lewis, S. (1978). Art: African American. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/artafricanameric0000lewi/page/148/mode/1up

Marks, C. (1984). World Artists 1980-1990: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=SW12yum_3x4C&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=Cliff+Joseph

Riley-Hiscox, A. (1997). Interview – Cliff Joseph: Art therapist, pioneer, artist. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 14(4), 273–278. doi:10.1080/07421656. 1987.10759297

Thomas, C. D. (1991). As Seen by Both Sides: American and Vietnamese Artists Look at War. University of Massachusetts Press. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/asseenbybothside0000unse/page/44/mode/1up

Tyler Fine Art. (2018). Cliff Joseph: Artist Activist. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/msmodular72/docs/cliff_joseph_artist_activist

Vadukul, A. (2020). Cliff Joseph, Artist, Activist and Therapist, Dies at 98. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/04/arts/cliff-joseph-dead.html

Wallace, C. V. (2015). Exhibiting Authenticity: The Black Emergency Cultural Coalition’s Protests of the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1968–71. Art Journal. 74(2), 5-23. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00043249.2015.1095535

Zellman, M. D. (1987). 300 Years of American Art. Wellfleet Press. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/300yearsofameric0001unse_o7c0/page/386/mode/2up?q=Cliff+Joseph

Sarah McGee

Doby-Copeland, C. (2019). Intersections of traditional healing and art therapy: Legacy of Sarah E. McGee. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 36(3), 157-161. doi:10.1080/07421656.2019.164954

Figdore, S. (2001). Therapist helps kids heal through art. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved from https://www.newspapers.com/image/145007226

Harness, J. A. (2002). Art therapist’s legacy of healing: Sarah McGee, 72, aided troubled children. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved from www.newspapers.com/image/145890165

Harness, J. A. (1986). Teacher brings word of thanks from Senegal. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved from www.newspapers.com/image/145081991

Hipp, P. (1977). ‘Artistry in Black’ Whets Viewer’s Appetite. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved from https://www.newspapers.com/image/144996975

McGee, S. E. (1979). Art therapy as a means of fostering parental closeness in a migrant preschool. In L. Gantt (Ed.), Focus on the future: The next ten years. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference of the American Art Therapy Conference (pp. 32–35). Retrieved from http://www.americanarttherapyassociation.org/conferenceproceedings/1979.pdf

McGee, S. E. (1981). The Black family: Culture specific therapeutic needs. In A. D. Maria (Ed.), Art therapy: A bridge between worlds, Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the American Art Therapy Conference (pp. 32–36). Retrieved from http://www.americanarttherapyassociation.org/conferenceproceedings/1981.pdf

Snell, R. (2002). Sara Eliza Pollard McGee. Find a grave memorial. Retrieved from https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/6602795/sarah-eliza-mcgee

Stravelli, G. (2002). Much more than drawing a picture: For more than 50 years Mama Sarah has helped children grow, heal. Atlanticville. Retrieved from https://archive.centraljersey.com/2002/02/14/much-more-than-drawing-a-picture-for-more-than-50-years-mama-sarah-has-helped-children-grow-heal/ 

Georgette Seabrooke-Powell

Bailey, J. (1998, May 28). Honors and awards: Georgette Powell honored as ageless hero. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1998/05/28/honors-and-awards/e22cbe03-5b7d-4efa-a4de-37528441fa5d/?utm_term=.501bfb41b748

Booker, S. (2002). Ten Honored at Gala DC Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony. Jet Magazine, 101(21), 12-13. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=p8MDAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA12&dq=georgette%20Powell&pg=PA12#v=onepage&q=georgette%20Powell&f=false

Boston, C. & Short, G. (2006). Notes: Georgette Seabrooke Powell. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 23(2), 89-90.

Columbia University. (2006). The artists: Georgette Seabrooke. Retrieved from http://iraas.columbia.edu/wpa/seabrooke.html

Cooper Union (2008). Pioneer Profile: Georgette Seabrooke Powell (A’37). Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. Retrieved from https://cooper.edu/about/news/pioneer-profile-georgette-seabrook-powell-a37

Dignity Memorial. (2011). Obituary: Georgette S. Powell, August 2, 1916-December 27, 2011. Retrieved from https://www.dignitymemorial.com/obituaries/ormond-beach-fl/georgette-s-powell-4937482

Farrington, Lisa (2005). Creating their own Image: The History of African American Women Artists. Oxford University Press. pp. 98–99.

Granton, E. F. (1975). The Washington Scene. Jet Magazine, 48(13), 38. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=d0MDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA38&dq=georgette+Powell&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZr4nZ8eH1AhVwl2oFHR6lC-kQuwV6BAgEEAY#v=onepage&q=georgette%20Powell&f=false

Harlem Hospital WPA Murals. (n.d.). Retrieved July 7, 2006 from http://www.columbia.edu/cu/iraas/wpa/artists/gseabrooke.html.

History Makers, The. (2006). Georgette Powell biography. Retrieved from http://www.thehistorymakers.org/biography/georgette-seabrooke-powell-41

McCoy, M. (1992). Visual Arts. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1992/09/10/visual-arts/08364dd0-5478-4539-a51f-cf9c6ad355ff/

Morris, J. (2016). In the spirit of Community: Georgette Seabrooke Powell. Retrieved from https://cdi.anacostia.si.edu/tag/exhibition-records/ .

New York Times, The. (1936). Race Bias Charged by Negro Artists: L.T. Dermody, Harlem Hospital Head, Accused of Rejecting 4 of 6 Murals. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1936/02/22/88636072.pdf?pdf_redirect=true&ip=0

Pogrebin, R. (2016). At Harlem Hospital, Murals Get a New Life. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/17/arts/design/murals-at-harlem-hospital-get-a-new-life.html

Powell, G. S. (1933). Woman in Profile (Young Girl of African Descent). The Met Museum. Retrieved from https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/491386

Powell, G. S. (1973). My Autobiography: Georgette Seabrooke Powell. Howard University Without Walls Program. Retrieved from https://sova.si.edu/details/AAA.donajeff#ref123

Smith, M. B. (2014). At the feet of a master: What Georgette Seabrooke Powell taught me about art, activism, and the creative sisterhood. Retrieved from https://truthout.org/articles/at-the-feet-of-a-master-what-georgette-seabrooke-powell-taught-me-about-art-activism-and-the-creative-sisterhood/

Woodard, K. & Hurtibise, R. (2008). Renaissance Woman: Meet Georgette Seabrooke-Powell. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sgaaZ-I6eU

Lucille Venture

Baltimore Afro-American. (1976). Salute of the week: Lucille D. Venture. Retrieved from http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2205&dat=19761030&id=RBInAAAAIBAJ&sjid=UwMGAAAAIBAJ&pg=3339,3390489

Potash, J. S. (2005). Rekindling the multicultural history of AATA. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 22(4), 184–189. doi:10.1080/07421656.2005.10129522

Venture, L. D. (1977). The Black beat in art therapy experiences [Doctoral dissertation]. Available from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database. (UMI No. 7720887).

Contemporary Black Aesthetics in Art Therapy

Personal Accounts

Boston, C. (2005). Life story of an art therapist of color. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 22(4), 188-192.

Doby-Copeland, C. (2006). Things come to me: Reflections from an art therapist of color. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 23(2), 81-85.

Short, G. M. (2014). Art therapy and identity. In M. B. Junge (Ed.), Identity and art therapy: Personal and professional perspectives (pp. 187–197). Charles C. Thomas.

Theory & Praxis

Boston, C.G., & Short, G.M. (1998). Art therapy: An Afrocentric approach. In A.R. Hiscox & C.A., Calisch (Eds.), Tapestry of cultural issues in art therapy (pp.36-48). Jessica Kingsley.

Boston, C. (2015). Art therapy and multiculturalism. In D. Gussak & M. Rosal (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of art therapy (pp. 822–828). Wiley Blackwell.

Doby, C., Encarnacion, N., Henry, H., Joseph, L., Kippins, B., Lambert, L., & Smith, B. (1978). Kaleidoscope: A multi-ethnic approach to art therapy. Workshop presented at the Pratt Institute Art Therapy Exposition, Brooklyn, NY.

Gipson, L. (2017). Challenging neoliberalism and multicultural love in art therapy. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 34(3), 112-117. doi:10.1080/07421656.2017.1353326

Hiscox, A. (1994).  “Clinical Art Therapy with adolescents of color:  Current trends in Health Care.”

In Virshup, E. (Ed.), California Art Therapy Trends. Magnolia Street Publishers.

Hiscox, A.R., & Calisch, A.C. (Eds.). (1998). Tapestry of Cultural Issues in Art Therapy. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Iyer, J., Talwar, S., & Doby-Copeland, C. (2003). Deconstructing Kaplan’s views on multi-culturalism. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 20(2), 65–66.

Jackson, L. (2020). Cultural humility in art therapy. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Riley-Hiscox, A. (1999). Critical multiculturalism: A response to “questioning multi-culturalism.” Art Therapy Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 16(3), 145–149. doi: 10.1080/07421656.1999.10129651.

Stepney, S. A. (2017). Art therapy with students at risk: Fostering resilience and growth through self-expression (3rd ed.). Charles C Thomas.

Talwar, S. K., S. Iyer, J. & Doby-Copeland, C.  (2004).  The invisible veil: Changing paradigms in the art therapy profession. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 21(1), 44-48.

Washington, B., Potash, J., Boston, C., Vance, L., Ocasio- Figueroa, M., Doby-Copeland, C., … Short, G. (2016). Passing the torch: Alternative approaches in art therapy professional practice. Plenary presented at the 47th Annual Conference of the American Art Therapy Association, Baltimore, MD.

Washington, B., Robertson, J., & Fredman, L. A. (2014, July). Lost ones: Fostering cross-cultural empathy between communities. Paper presented at the 45th Annual Conference of the American Art Therapy Association, San Antonio, TX. Retrieved from http:// www.xcdsystem.com/aata2014/proceedings/abstracts/232.pdf

Research & Pedagogy

Boston, C., & Creekmore, J. (1996, November). Drawing out the invisible: Recommendations for training cross culturally. Paper presented at the American Art Therapy Association Conference, Philadelphia, PA.

Doby-Copeland, C. (2006). Cultural diversity curriculum design: An art therapist’s perspective. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 23(4), 172-180.

Johnson, T., Deaver, S. P., & Doby-Copeland, C. (2021). Art Therapy Students of Color: The Experience of Seven Graduate Students, Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association38(1), 50-56, DOI: 10.1080/07421656.2020.1862603

Note: This guide is not total, complete, or perfect. While we must appreciate the rich wisdom of those who have archived and documented the material which we have available on Black history in art therapy, we must also reckon and confront the realities that racial inequity has had on and within the profession that subordinated Black lived experiences and ways of knowing, leaving them lost in the ephemerality of history.

For questions or more information on how to contribute to this guide, please email Zachary.vandenberg@gmail.com

Contributions from: Expressive Media Film Library